I don't like to be super dogmatic about what's "appropriate" for makeup because that's just not okay. Women deal with enough with being policed on what's appropriate. If you have a particular style you feel good in, rock it. I don't care if it's goth in the bright light of summer. Do you.
That said, I am a makeup pragmatist. For me it's about my goals. In the daytime, I'm trying to get work done. My work involves attempting to influence people, so I want to look competent but not distracting. I don't need my eyes to be mesmerizing, I want my words to do that! Studies show (and don't shoot the messenger here please) women who wear some makeup, but not a lot, are viewed as more competent. Therefore I wear fairly subtle makeup in the daytime when I'm working.
If I'm going out with friends, they probably don't care if I'm competent at my job or not. They'd be sad for me if I weren't, but they'd probably still hang out with me because of my scintillating conversation! So nighttime makeup is when I get to have more fun--this is assuming I even go out at night, which, because I am a hermit, I don't all that often, but STILL, let's pretend I was going out on the town. I'd add a lot more eyeliner and eyeshadow because it's just fun. And the night life lends itself to bolder eyes because the lighting is friendlier. In the harsh light of day (and the florescent lights of last call) smoky eyes just look smudged panda-y to me.
If I'm doing date night, going to a nice restaurant or going to an event, maybe I'd do a bolder lip. I am all for the "Rouge et Rien" look, which saves a lot of time on the eyes. It's not really "rien" on the rest of the face, but I won't be one of those people who does a smoky eye and a bold lip. No no. The 80's can keep that look. When doing a bold lip, I like a stain best. A bold, creamy look is going to come off real quickly. A dab of gloss in the center, okay, but creamy bold colors are just a napkin swipe away from looking like Whatever Happened to Baby Jane.
So there you go. Daytime versus nighttime opinion piece. Illustrative pics will be added at some point!